He was born in Yên Bái and lives in Hanoi. He joined the Communist resistance against the French in 1946, but by 1956, had fallen out of favor with the Party, due to his participation in the Nhân Văn Giai Phẩm dissident group, of which he was a key member. He was kicked out of the Writers Union, condemned to hard labor several times, and banned from publishing for more than 30 years. Only since 1994 has he been allowed to publish again.
Linh Dinh started this entry.